A selection of critical articles related to GATE program work organized by topic:

Menstruation & the Women and Girls' Agenda 


Misunas, C., Hindin, M. J., Phillips-Howard, P. A., Sommer, M. (2023). The association between hormonal contraceptive use and anemia among adolescent girls and young women: An analysis of data from 51 low- and middle-income countries. Journal of Adolescent Health, 0(0), 1–10.

Hennegan, J., Caruso, B. A., Zulaika, G., Torondel, B., Haver, J., Phillips-Howard, P. A., Valdez, J., Gruer, C., Okwaro, N., Mahon, T., & Sommer, M. (2023). Indicators for National and Global Monitoring of Girls’ Menstrual Health and Hygiene: Development of a Priority Shortlist. Journal of Adolescent Health, 0(0). 

Bergen, S., Murimi, D., Gruer, C., Munene, G., Nyachieo, A., Owiti, M., Sommer, M. (2023). Living with Endometriosis: A narrative analysis of the experiences of Kenyan women. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(5), 1-12.

Macura, B., Foggitt, E., Carla, L., Soto, A., Orlando, A., Del Duca, L., Carrad, N., Hannes, K., Sommer, M., Dickin, S. (2023). Systematic mapping of gender equality and social inclusion in WASH interventions: knowledge clusters and gaps. BMJ Global Health, 8:e010850. 

Marsh, A., Moller, A., Saewyc, E., Adebayo, E…. Sommer, M., Speizer, I., Tang, K., Guthold, R. (2022). Selecting priority indicators for adolescent health measurement – results from the Global Action for Measurement of Adolescent Health (GAMA) advisory group. Journal of Adolescent Health, 71(4), 455-465. 

Hoppes, E., Chukwuemeka, N., Hennegan, J., Blithe, D., Cordova-Gomez, A., Critchley, H., Doncel, G., Dorflinger, L., Haddad, L., Mackenzie, A., Maybin, J., Moley, K., Nanda, K., Sales Vieira, C., Vwalika, B., Kibira, S., Mickler, A., OlaOlorun, F., Polis, C., Sommer, M., Williams, K., Lathrop, E., Mahajan, T., Rademacher, K., Solomon, M., Wilson, K., Wilson, L., Rountree, L. (2022). A global research and learning agenda for building evidence on contraceptive-induced menstrual changes for research, product development, policies and programs. Open Gates Research, 19(6), 49. 

Sommer, M., Caruso, B.A., Torondel, B., Warren, E.C., Yamakoshi, B., Haver, J., Long, J., Mahon, T., Nalinponguit, E., Okwaro, N., Phillips-Howard, P.A. (2021). Menstrual hygiene management in schools: Midway progress update on the “MHM in Ten” 2014-2024 global agenda. Health Research Policy and Systems, 19(1), 1-14. 

Babbar, K., Martin, J., Ruiz, J., Parray, A., Sommer, M. (2021). Menstrual health is a public health and human rights issue. Commentary. The Lancet Public Health, 7(1). 

Sommer, M., Torondel, B., Hennegan, J., Phillips-Howard, P., Mahon, T., Motivans, A., Zulaika, G., Gruer, C., Haver, J., Caruso, B., & Monitoring Menstrual Health and Hygiene Group (2021). How addressing menstrual health and hygiene may enable progress across the Sustainable Development GoalsGlobal Health Action14(1).

Liu, D., Schmitt, M., Nowara, A., Magno, C., Ortiz, R., Sommer, M. (2021). The evolving landscape of menstrual product advertisements in the United States: 2008-2018Health Care for Women International, 44(5).

Sommer, M. & Mason, D. (2021) Period poverty and promoting menstrual equity. JAMA Health Forum, 2(8); e213089.

Plesons, M., Patkar, A., Babb, J., Balapitiya, A., Carson, F., Caruso, B., Franco, M., Hansen, M., Haver, J., Jahangir, A., Kabiru, C., Kisangala, E., Phillips-Howard, P., Sharma, A., Sommer, M., Chandra-Mouli, V. (2021). The state of adolescent menstrual health in low- and middle-income countries and suggestions for future action and research. Reproductive Health, 18(31). 

Winkler, I. T., Bobel, C., Houghton, L. C., Elhadad, N., Gruer, C., & Paranjothy, V. (2020). The Politics, Promises, and Perils of Data: Evidence-Driven Policy and Practice for Menstrual Health. Women's Reproductive Health, 1-17.

Critchley, H., Babayev, E., Bulun, S., Clark, S., Garcia-Grau, I., Gregersen, P., Kilcoyne, A., Kim, J-Y J., Lavender, M., Marsh, E., Matteson, K., Maybin, J., Metz, C., Moreno, I., Silk, K., Sommer, M., Simon, C., Tariyal, R., Taylor, H., Wagner, G., & Griffith, L. (2020). Menstruation: science and society. American Journal of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 223(5): 624-664.

Schmitt, M., Clatworthy, D., Ogello, T., Sommer, M. (2018). Making the Case for a Female-Friendly ToiletWater, 10(9), 1193.

Sommer, M., Kjellen, M. & Pensulo, C. (2013). Girls’ and women’s unmet needs for menstrual hygiene management (MHM): The Interactions between MHM and sanitation systems in low-income countries. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, 3(3), 283-297

Goddard, S. & Sommer, M. (2020). Menstrual health and hygiene management and WASH in urban slums: Gaps in the evidence and recommendations. wH20: The Journal of Gender and Water, 7(1)

Sommer, M., Zulaika, G., Schmitt, M., Khandakji, S., Neudorf, K., Gellis, L., & Phillips-Howard, P. (2020). Improving the impact of menstrual health innovations in low- and middle-income countries: A theory of change and measurement framework. Journal of Global Health Reports, 4. 

Sommer, M. (2015). 'Toilet trouble'Pacific Standard.

Sommer, M., Zulaika, G., Schmitt, M., Khandakji, S., & Phillips-Howard, P.A. (2020). Advancing the measurement agenda for menstrual health and hygiene interventions in low- and middle-income countries. Journal of Global Health, 10(1). 

Caruso, B. A., Sommer, M., & Phillips-Howard, P. A. (2019). All of women's health needs are worthy of attention. Lancet, 393(10186), 2119.

Hennegan, J., Tsui, Amy., Sommer, M. (2019). Missed Opportunities: Menstruation Matters for Family PlanningInternational Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 45, 55-59. 

Sommer, M., Zulaika, G., Schmitt, M., Gruer, C. (Eds.) (2019). Monitoring Menstrual Health and Hygiene: Measuring Progress for Girls on Menstruation; Meeting Report. New York & Geneva: Columbia University and WSSCC. 

Phillips-Howard, P., Hennegan, J., Weiss, H., Hytti, L. & Sommer, M. (2018). Inclusion of menstrual health in sexual and reproductive health and rights. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 2(8), e18.

Sommer, M., Phillips-Howard, PA., Mahon, T., Zients, S. Jones, M., Caruso, BA. (2017). Beyond menstrual hygiene: addressing vaginal bleeding throughout the life course in low and middle-income countries. BMJ Global Health, 2(2) e000405.

Hennegan, J., Torondel, B., Phillips-Howard, P., Sommer, M., & Montgomery, P. (2017). Time to talk about menstruation: A response. The Lancet, 390(10097), 845-846.

Loughnan, L., Bain, R., Rosemary, R., Sommer, M. & Slaymaker, T. (2016). What can existing data on water and sanitation tell us about menstrual hygiene management? Waterlines, 35(3), 1-17

Sommer, M., Chandraratna, S., Cavill, S., Mahon, T., Phillips-Howard, P. (2016). Managing menstruation in the workplace: an overlooked issue in low- and middle-income countries. International Journal for Equity in Health, 15(1), 86.

Sommer, M., Sutherland, C. & Chandra-Mouli, V. (2015). Putting menarche and girls into the global population health agenda. Reproductive Health, 12(24). 

Sommer, M., Hirsh, J.S., Nathanson, C. & Parker, R. (2015). Comfortably, safely and without shame: Defining menstrual hygiene management as a public health issue. American Journal of Public Health, 105(7), 1302-1311. 

Sommer, M. (2013). Menarche: A missing indicator for population health in low-income countriesPublic Health Reports, 128(5), 399-401. 

Sommer, M. (2011). An Early Window of Opportunity for Promoting Girls Health: Policy Implications of the Girls Puberty Book Project in TanzaniaGlobal Journal of Health Education and Promotion, 14(1).

Sommer, M. & Santelli, J. (2010). Moving forward the girl’s agenda. Issues in Science and Technology. Commentary, Online July 2010.

Sommer, M. & Kirk, J. (2008). 'Menstruation is on her mind’: Girl-centered, holistic thinking for school sanitation. WASH in Schools Notes and News, International Water and Sanitation Centre, pp. 4-6.

Kirk, J. & Sommer, M. (2006). Menstruation and body awareness: Linking girls’ health with girls’ education. Royal Tropical Institute (KIT), Special on Gender and Health, pp. 1-22.

Kirk, J. & Sommer, M. (2005). Menstruation and body awareness: Critical issues for girls’ education. Equals: Beyond Access, Gender and Education, Issue 15.  


Sommer, M. (2012). Utilizing participatory and qualitative methods for effective menstrual hygiene management related policy and planning, pp. 181-202. In Adolescent Girls, Cornerstone of Society: Building Evidence and Policies for Inclusive Societies, Edited by M. Perisic, M. Komarecki, & A. Minujin. New York: UNICEF and the New School.


Loughnon, L., Mahon, T., Goddard, S., Bain, R. & Sommer, M. (In Press). Menstruation monitoring and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Inga Winkler (Ed). Handbook of Critical Menstrual Studies.

Sommer, M. & Caruso, B. (2015). Gender, menstrual hygiene management and WASH. In J. Bartram & B. Evans (Ed.) Global WaSH and Health Textbook. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.


​Sommer, M. (Nov. 16, 2018). 'Why Female-Friendly Toilets Need To Become a Hot News Topic.' NewsDeeply.

Sommer, M. (May 26, 2017). 'Why a monthly period is especially hard for millions of women and girls around the world'. The Conversation.

Sommer, M. & Caruso, B. (November 20, 2015). 'Gender equality comes one toilet at a time'The Conversation.

Sommer, M. (August 13, 2015). 'Menstruation is a global health problem and we need to talk about it'The Conversation. 

Sommer, M. (April 16, 2015). 'World Bankers: Please study menstruation costs'. Womens E-News.

Sommer, M. (Mar. 26, 2015). 'Girls, education and sanitation'The Hill. 

Sommer, M. & Caruso, B. (Mar. 11, 2015). 'We need to talk about our periods'. Pacific Standard. 

Sommer, M. (Feb. 10, 2015). 'Girl Things'. Global Post. 


Sommer, M. (November 2, 2017). 'Mainstreaming menstruation'. WNPR, National Public Radio. 

Sommer, M. (October 10, 2017). 'Why periods are political: The fight for menstrual equity'. National Public Radio.

Sommer, M. (May 30, 2017). 'Menstruation: What Ivanka must teach Donald'. The David Feldman Show.

Sommer, M. (March 4, 2017). 'Menstruation 101 for Boys: A comic book is their guide'. National Public Radio.

Sommer, M. (June 16, 2015). 'People are finally talking about the thing nobody wants to talk about'. National Public Radio. 

Sommer, M. (October 20, 2015). 'Where the girls are (and aren't): #15Girls'. National Public Radio. 

Global Puberty Research 


Ibitoye, M., Sommer, M., Davidson, L. L., & Sandfort, T. G. M. (2023). Exploring the effect of early menarche on sexual violence among adolescent girls and young women in southeastern Ghana: A longitudinal mediation analysis. Sexual and Reproductive Health Matters, 31(1), 2244271.

Sommer, M. & Schmitt, M.L. (2023). Taking Stock: An adaptable research and partnership model for developing puberty education in 10 countries. Global Health: Science and Practice, 11(2).

Teizazu, H., Gruer, C., Mandara, E., Sommer, M. (2023). A faith-based approach for puberty education in Tanzania: An exploratory assessment. Frontiers in Reproductive Health, 5.

Carney, A., Mulei, T., Kurao, D., Hagstrom, C., Sommer, M. (2022). “When I woke up I was so worried and ashamed, I thought it was a disease”: Adolescent boys’ transitions through puberty in Kenya. Frontiers in Reproductive Health, 7, 1-11. 

Baumann, S., Lhaki, P., Terry, M., Sommer, M., Cutlip, T., Merante, M., Burke, J. (2021). Beyond the menstrual shed: Exploring caste/ethnic and religious complexities of menstrual practices in far-west Nepal. Women’s Reproductive Health, 8(1), 1-28. 

Glass, N., Mpanano, M.R., Jennings Mayo-Willson, L., Kohli, A., Sommer, M., Turner, R. & Perrin, N. (2020). Comparative effectiveness of an economic empowerment program on adolescent asset building, school attendance, mental health, stigma and food security outcomes in a humanitarian setting. BMC Health, 20(170), 1-15.

Sommer, M., Daly, G., Kabiru, C., Lhaki, P. & Chandra-Mouli, V. (2020). Strengthening health care worker engagement with early adolescence in low- and middle-income countries: An overdue area for action. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health

Houghton, L. C., Troisi, R., Sommer, M., Katki, H. A., Booth, M., Choudhury, O. A., & Hampshire, K. R. (2020). "I'm not a freshi": Culture shock, puberty and growing up as British-Bangladeshi girls. Social science & medicine, 258(1982), 113058.

Mukherjee, A., Lama, M., Khakurel, U., Nath Jha, A., Ajose, F., Achara, S., Tymes-Wilbekin, K., Sommer, M., Jolly, P., Lhaki, P., Shresha, S. (2020). Perceptions and practices of menstruation restrictions among urban adolescent girls and women in Nepal: A cross-sectional survey. Reproductive Health, 17(1), 81.

Chandra-Mouli, V., Ferguson, B.J., Plesons, M.…….et al. (2019). The political, research, programmatic and social responses to adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights in the 25 years since the International Conference on Population and Development. Journal of Adolescent Health, 65(6): Supplement.

Mumtaz, Z., Sivanthajothy, T., Bhatti, A., & Sommer, M. (2019). How can we leave the traditions of our Baab Daada?": Socio-cultural structures and values driving menstrual hygiene management challenges in schools in Pakistan. Journal of Adolescence, 76, 152-161. 

Sommer, M., Skolnik, A., Ramirez, A., Lee, J., Rasoazanany, H & Ibitoye, M. (2019). Early Adolescence in Madagascar: Girls' Transitions Through Puberty in and out of School. The Journal of Early Adolescence. 

Asghar, K., Mayevskaya, Y., Sommer, M., Razzaque, A., Laird, B., Khan, Y., Qureshi, S., Falb, K. & Stark, L. (2018). Promoting adolescent girls’ well-being in Pakistan: A mixed methods effectiveness and acceptability study of the COMPASS program. Prevention Science, 19(8), 1030-1042.

Ashgar, K., Mayevskaya, Y., Somme, M., Razzaque, A., Laird, B., Khan, Y., Qureshi, S., Falb, K., Stark, L. (2018). Promoting adolescent well-being in Pakistan: A mixed-methods study of change over time, feasibility, and acceptability of the COMPASS program. Prevention Science, 19(8), 1030-1042. 

Bello, B., Fatusi, A., Adepoju, O., Maina, B., Kabiru, C., Sommer, M. & Mmari, K. (2017). Parent and adolescent reactions to puberty in Nigeria and Kenya: A cross-cultural and intergenerational comparison. Journal of Adolescent Health, 61(4), S35-S41.

Blake, S., Boone, M., Yenew Kassa, A., & Sommer, M. (2017). Teaching Girls About Puberty and Menstrual Hygiene Management in Rural Ethiopia: Findings From a Pilot Evaluation. Journal of Adolescent Research, 33(5), 623-646.

Herbert, A. C., Ramirez, A. M., Lee, G., North, S. J., Askari, M. S., West, R. L., & Sommer, M. (2017). Puberty experiences of low-income girls in the United States: A systematic review of qualitative literature from 2000 to 2014. Journal of Adolescent Health, 60(4), 363-379.

Ibitoye, M., Choi, C., Tai, H., Lee, G., & Sommer, M. (2017). Early menarche: A systematic review of its effect on sexual and reproductive health in low-and middle-income countries. PloS one, 12(6), e0178884.

Smiles, D., Short S. & Sommer, M. (2017). I Didn't Tell Anyone Because I Was Very Afraid: Girls' experiences of menstruation in contemporary Ethiopia. Women’s Reproductive Health, 4(3), 185-197.

Scandurra, L., Khorn, D., Ashley-Charles, T.^ & Sommer, M. (2016). Cambodian boys’ transitions through puberty: Exploring the influence of masculinity norms on adolescent health. Culture, Health and Sexuality, 7(19), 767-780.

Sommer, M. & Mmari, K. (2015). Structural and environmental factors for adolescent sexual and reproductive health: Why are they not being addressed? American Journal of Public Health, 105(10), 1973-1981.  

Sommer, M., Ackatia-Armah, N., Connolly, S., & Smiles, D. (2015). A comparison of the menstruation and education experiences of girls in Tanzania, Ghana, Cambodia and Ethiopia. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 45(4), 589-609.

Sommer, M., Likindikoki, S., & Kaaya, S. (2014). Tanzanian adolescent boys’ transitions through puberty: The importance of context. American Journal of Public Health, 104(12), 2290-2297.

Sommer, M., Likindikoki, S., & Kaaya, S. (2013). Parents, sons, and globalization in Tanzania: Implications for adolescent health. Thymos: Journal of Boyhood Studies, 7(1), 1931-1945.

Sommer, M. (2012). Structural factors influencing menstruating school girls’ health and well-being in Tanzania. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education.

Sommer, M. (2011). An overlooked priority: Puberty in sub-Saharan Africa. American Journal of Public Health, 101(6), 6-16. 

Sommer, M. (2010). The changing nature of girlhood in Tanzania: Influences from global imagery and globalization. Girlhood Studies, 3(1), 116-136.


Sommer, M. & Herbert, A. (March 6, 2017) 'Low-income girls often feel unprepared for puberty'. The Conversation.

Sommer, M. (June 11, 2015). 'Lessons from Judy Blume: Pubescent lives matter'. Pacific Standard. 


Sommer, M. (October 1, 2018 ). 'Education, gender and sexual health'. FreshEd Podcast. 

Sommer, M. (September 18, 2018). 'All about menstruation, puberty'The Citizen, Tanzania. 

Alcohol & Sexual Health


Carney, A., Kaaya, S., Kajula, L., Marwe, G., Sommer, M. (2021) “Most of the youth are drinking because they have nothing to do”: How idle time facilitates adolescent alcohol use in urban Tanzania. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 29(2), 129-142.

Sommer, M., Kaaya, S., Kajula, L., Marwerwe, G., Hamisi, H., & Parker, R.G. (2020) Social and structural determinants of youth alcohol use in Tanzania: The role of gender, social vulnerability and stigma. Global Public Health, 16(1), 75-87. 

Sommer, M., Ibitoye, M., Likindikoki, S. & Parker, R.G. (2020) Participatory methodologies with adolescents: A research approach used to explore structural factors affecting alcohol use and related unsafe sex in Tanzania. Journal of Primary Prevention. 

Ibitoye, M., Kaaya, S., Parker, R., Likindikoki, S., Ngongi, L., & Sommer, M. (2019). The influence of alcohol outlet density and advertising on youth drinking in urban Tanzania. Health and Place, 58

Sommer, M., Parker, R., Msacky, G., Kajula, L., & Kaaya, S. (2019). How alcohol, space, and time influence young people’s sexual encounters in Tanzania: A qualitative analysis. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 1-11.

Sommer, M., Munoz-Laboy, M., Williams, A., Mayevskaya, Y., Falb, K., Abdella, G., & Stark, L. (2018). How gender norms are reinforced through violence against adolescent girls in two conflict-affected populations. Child Abuse & Neglect, 79, 154-163.

Stark, L., Sommer, M., Davis, K., Asghar, K., Baysa, A., Abdela, G., Tanner, S. & Falb, K. (2017). Disclosure bias for group versus individual reporting of violence amongst conflicted-affected adolescent girls in DRC and Ethiopia. PLoSOne12(4), e0174741.

Sommer, M., Likindikoki, S., & Kaaya, S. (2015). "Bend a fish when the fish is not yet dry": Adolescent boys' perception of sexual risk in Tanzania. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44(3), 583-595. 

Sommer, M., Ferron, S., Cavill, S. & House, S. (2014). Violence, gender and WASH: Spurring action on a complex, under-documented and sensitive topic. Environment and Globalization, 27(1), 105-116.

Sommer, M., Likindikoki, S., & Kaaya, S. (2013). Boys’ and young men’s perspectives on violence in northern Tanzania. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 15(6), 695-709.


Sommer, M. & Parker, R. (Eds.) (2013). Structural Approaches in Public Health. London: Routledge.

BOOK Chapters:

Parker, R., Garcia, J., Muñoz-Laboy, M., Sommer, M., & Wilson, P. (2015). Sexuality and Public Health. In: Roger Detels, Martin Gulliford, Quarraisha Abdool Karim and Chorh Chuan Tan (Eds.), Oxford Textbook of Public Health, 6th edition.  New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Menstruation in the U.S.A.


Schmitt, M., Dimond, K., Maroko, A., Phillips-Howard, P., Gruer, C., Berry, A., Nash, D., Kochar, S., Sommer, M. (2023). “I stretch them out as long as possible”: U.S. women’s experiences of menstrual product insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic. BMC Women’s Health, 23: 179

Schmitt, M., Hagstrom, C., Nowara, A., Gruer, C., Adenu-Mensah, N., Keeley, K., Sommer, M. (2022). “Girls may bleed through pads because of demerits”: Adolescent girls’ experiences with menstruation and school bathrooms in the U.S.A. Journal of Adolescent Research, 0(0). 

Schmitt, M., Gruer, C., Hagstrom, C., Adenu-Mensah, N., Nowara, A., Keeley, K., Sommer, M. (2022). “It always gets pushed aside”: Qualitative perspectives on puberty and menstruation education in U.S.A. schools. Frontiers in Reproductive Health, 4:1018217.

Sommer, M., Phillips-Howard, P.A., Gruer, C., Schmitt, M.L., Nguyen, A.M., Berry, A., Kochhar, S., Kulkarni, S.G., Nash, D., & Maroko, A.R. (2022). Menstrual Product Insecurity Resulting from COVID-19-Related Income Loss, United States, 2020. American Journal of Public Health, 112(4), 675-684. 

Teizazu, H., Sommer, M., Gruer, C., Giffen, D., Davis, L., Frumin, R., Hopper, K. (2021). "Do We Not Bleed?" Sanitation, Menstrual Management, and Homelessness in the Time of COVID. Columbia Journal of Gender & Law, 41(1).

Maroko, A. R., Hopper, K., Gruer, C., Jaffe, M., Zhen, E., & Sommer, M. (2021). Public restrooms, periods, and people experiencing homelessness: An assessment of public toilets in high needs areas of Manhattan, New York. PloS one, 16(6), e0252946.

Gruer, C., Hopper, K., Smith, R.C., Kelly, E., Maroko, A., Sommer, M. (2021). Seeking menstrual products: a qualitative exploration of the unmet menstrual needs of individuals experiencing homelessness in New York City. Reproductive Health, 18(11).

Lane, B., Perez-Brumer, A., Parker, R., Sprong, A., Sommer, M. (2021). Improving menstrual equity: Perspectives from transgender men and clinicians in the USA. Culture, Health and Sexuality, 24(10), 1408-1422.

Gruer, C., Goss, T., Schmitt, M.L., & Sommer, M. (2021). Menstrual Equity Initiatives at USA Universities: A Multiple Case Study of Common Obstacles and Enabling Factors. Frontiers in Reproductive Health, 0, 100.

Schmitt, M. L., Booth, K., & Sommer, M. (2022). A Policy for Addressing Menstrual Equity in Schools: A Case Study From New York City, U.S.A. Frontiers in Reproductive Health, 0, 118. 

Schmitt, M., Hagstrom, C., Nowara, A., Gruer, C., Adenu-Mensah, N., Keeley, K., Sommer, M. (2021). The intersection of menstruation, school and family: Experiences of girls growing up in urban areas in the U.S.A. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 26(1), 94-109.

Sommer, M., Gruer, C., Smith, R., Maroko, A., Hopper, K. (2020). Menstruation and homelessness: Challenges faced living in shelters and on the street in New York CityHealth and Place, 66, 102431.

Sommer, M. (2012). Insights from the classroom. The Journal of Practice Teaching and Learning, 10(3), 6-16.

Sommer M., Lee C., Liu D., Gruer, C. (2020). The Extent to Which Menstruation-Related Issues Are Included in Graduate-Level Public Health Curricula. Frontiers in Public Health, 8(442)

Sommer, M., Schmitt, M., Herbert, A., Gruer, C. & Phillips-Howard, P. (2019). Neglect of menarche and menstruation in addressing child poverty and health in the USAThe Lancet, Correspondence.

Menstruation in Emergencies


Schmitt, M.L., Gruer, C., Clatworthy, D., Kimonye, C., Peter, D.E., Sommer, M. (2022). "Menstrual material maintenance, disposal and laundering challenges among displaced girls and women in Northeast Nigeria" Journal of Water, Sanitation & Hygiene for Development

Sommer, M., Utami, D., Gruer, C. (2022). Menstrual hygiene management considerations during Ebola response: A qualitative exploration. International Journal of Humanitarian Action, 7(19).

Winter, S., Sommer, M., Obara, L., Nair, D. (2022) “There is no other place to dispose them. What would you have me do?”: A qualitative study of menstruation and the physical and social environment in informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. Health and Place, 78:102932. 

Schmitt, M.L., Wood, O.R., Clatworthy, D. Rashid, S., Sommer, M. (2021). Innovative strategies for providing menstruation-supportive water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) facilities: learning from refugee camps in Cox’s Bazar, BangladeshConflict and Health, 15(10). 

Sommer, M., Muñoz-Laboy, M., Williams, A., Mayevskaya, Y., Falb, K., Abdella, G., & Stark, L. (2018). How gender norms are reinforced through violence against adolescent girls in two conflict-affected populations. Child Abuse & Neglect, 79, 154-163.

Sommer, M., Schmitt, M., Ogello, T., Mathenge, P., Mark, M., Clatworthy, D., Khandakji, S., Ratnayake, R. (2018). Pilot testing and evaluation of a toolkit for menstrual hygiene management in emergencies in three refugee camps in Northwest Tanzania. Journal for International Humanitarian Action, 3(1), 6. 

Sommer, M., Munoz-Laboy, M., Wilkinson Salamea, E., Arp, J., Falb, K. L., Rudahindwa, N., & Stark, L. (2018). How narratives of fear shape girls’ participation in community life in two conflict-affected populations. Violence Against Women, 24(5), 565-585.

Schmitt, M., Sommer, M., Clatworthy, D., Bramucci, G., Wheeler, E., Ratnayake, R. (2017). Understanding the menstrual hygiene management challenges facing displaced girls and women: findings from qualitative assessments in Myanmar and Lebanon. Conflict and Health, 11(1), 19.

Falb, K., Tanner, S., Ward, L., Erksine, D., Noble, E., Assazenew, A., Bakomere, T., Graybill, E., Lowry, C., Mallinga, P., Neiman, A., Poulton, C., Robinette, K. & Sommer, M., Stark, L. (2016). Creating opportunities through mentorship, parental involvement, and safe spaces (COMPASS) program: Multi-country study protocol to protect girls from violence in humanitarian settings. BMC Public Health, 16(1), 231.

Sommer, M., Schmitt, M.,  Clatworthy, D., Bramucci, G., Wheeler, E., Ratnayake, R. (2016). What is the scope for addressing menstrual hygiene management in complex humanitarian emergencies? A global review. Waterlines, 35(3), 245-264.

Sommer, M. (2012). Menstrual hygiene management in humanitarian emergencies: Gaps and recommendations. Waterlines, 31(1-2), 83-104. 


Sommer, M. (2015). Menstrual hygiene management in humanitarian emergencies: Gaps and recommendations. In R. Carter (Ed.) Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Humanitarian Contexts: Reflections on Current Practice. UK: Practical Action Publishing.

House, S., Ferron, S., Sommer, M., & Cavill, S. (2014). Violence, gender, and WASH: A practitioners’ toolkit. Making water, sanitation and hygiene safer through improved programming. Humanitarian Exchange Magazine, 60


Sommer, M. (2019). 'A Simple Way To Make Toilets Friendlier For Women in Refugee Camps.' NPR

Schmitt, M. (2019). 'Opinion: There's Nowhere Worse to Have Your Period Than A Refugee Camp.' Buzzfeed News. 

Sommer, M. (2017). 'Why a monthly period is especially hard for millions of women and girls around the world.The Conversation.

Sommer, M. (2015). 'The Syrian Refugee Struggle No One’s Talking About'. Ms. Magazine


Sommer, M. (November 22, 2017). 'Menstruation among the displaced'. German NOVA, Deutschlandradio.

MHM in Schools Advocacy 


Sommer, M., Schmitt, M., Yamakoshi, B., Serrano, M. (2018). WASH in schools empowers girls' education: Proceedings of the 6th annual virtual conference on menstrual hygiene management in schools. New York: UNICEF & Columbia University.

Khan, F., Mitchell, C. & Sommer, M. (2018). Honoring the legacy of Jackie Kirk. Journal of Girlhood Studies, 11(2), 1-12.

Sommer, M., Figueroa, C., Kwauk, C., Jones, M., & Fyles, N. (2017). Attention to menstrual hygiene management in schools: An analysis of education policy documents in low- and middle-income countries. International Journal for Educational Development, 57, 73-82.  

Sommer, M., Robles, P., Comey, D., Yamakoshi, B., Burgers, L., Cavill, S. (2016). WASH in schools empowers girls' education: Proceedings of the 5th annual virtual conference on menstrual hygiene management in schools. New York: UNICEF.

Sommer, M., Caruso, B., Sahin, M., Calderon, T., Cavill, S., Mahon, T., Phillips-Howard, PA. (2016). A time for global action: Addressing girls’ menstrual hygiene management needs in schools. PLOS Medicine 13(2): e1001962.

Sommer, M., Sahin, M., Paloubis, L, Truong, M., Sinden, J. (2016). WASH in schools empowers girls' education: Proceedings of the menstrual hygiene management in schools virtual conference 2015. New York: UNICEF.

Sommer, M. & Truong, M. (2016). Innovative communications for menstrual hygiene management (MHM) in Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) in Schools. New York: UNICEF & Columbia University.

Phillips-Howard, P.A., Caruso, B., Torondel, B., Zulaika, G., Sahin, M. & Sommer, M. (2016). Menstrual hygiene management among adolescent schoolgirls in low-and middle-income countries: research priorities. Global Health Action, 9(1), 33032.

Sommer, M., Vasquez, E., Worthington, N. & Sahin, M., & Dooley, T. (2014). WASH in schools empowers girls' education: Proceedings of the menstrual hygiene management in schools virtual conference 2013. New York: UNICEF.

Connolly, S. & Sommer, M. (2013). Cambodian girls’ recommendations for facilitating menstrual hygiene management in school. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, 3(4), 612-622.

Sommer, M. & Sahin, M. (2013). Overcoming the taboo: Advancing the global agenda for menstrual hygiene management for schoolgirls. American Journal of Public Health, 103(9), 1556-1559. 

Sommer, M., Vasquez, E., Worthington, N. & Sahin, M. (2013). WASH in schools empowers girls' education: Proceedings of the menstrual hygiene management in schools virtual conference 2012. New York: UNICEF. 

Sommer, M., Sutherland, C., & Wood, S. (2013). Background document for technical consultation on improving menstruation education (ME) and menstrual hygiene management (MHM) in school. Paris, France: UNESCO.

Sommer, M. & Ackatia-Armah, T. (2012). The gendered nature of schooling in Ghana: Hurdles to girls’ menstrual management in school. JENdA, 20, 63-79.

Sommer, M. (2011). “Integrating menstrual hygiene management (MHM) into the school water, sanitation and hygiene agenda,” Briefing Paper submitted for presentation at WEDC.

Sommer, M. (2010). Putting ‘menstrual hygiene management’ into the school water and sanitation agenda. Waterlines, 29(4), 268-278.

Sommer, M. (2009). Where the education system and women’s bodies collide: The social and health impact of girls’ experiences of menstruation and schooling in Tanzania. Journal of Adolescence, 33(4), 521-529.

Sommer, M. (2009). Ideologies on sexuality, menstruation and risk: Girls' experiences of puberty and schooling in northern Tanzania. Culture, Health and Sexuality, 11(4), 383-398. 

Sommer, M. (2009). “Menstruation and school girls”: Current and future initiatives, Notes and News, International Water and Sanitation Centre.


Mitchell, C., Sommer, M., Farr, V. (In Press). Activist in the academy, Feminist in the field: In memoriam Jackie Kirk, 2008-2018.  Special Issue, Studies in Social Justice. 


Caruso, B. & Sommer, M. (2018). Addressing the needs of women and girls in school. In T. Slaymaker & O. Cumming (Eds.) Achieving Equality in Water and Sanitation Service Delivery. UK: Taylor & Francis.


Sommer, M. (December 28, 2016 ). 'Does handing out sanitary pads really get girls to stay in school?' National Public Radio.