Central Nervous System (CNS) Biomarkers and Gene X Environment Interactions (GxE) In Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Group

Location and Contact Information

630 West 168th Street
New York, NY 10032
United States

Principal Investigator

  • Profile Headshot
    • Member of the Columbia Center for Environmental Health and Justice in Northern Manhattan
    • Member of the Motor Neuron Center

The Central Nervous System (CNS) Biomarkers and Gene X Environment Interactions (GxE) In Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Group explores the environmental factors that may contribute to the development of adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) by utilizing human biomarker and experimental model studies. This is a wet lab.

Ongoing Projects

Brain-Derived Extracellular Vesicles as Biomarkers in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a mostly sporadic and invariably fatal paralytic disorder. ALS pathogenic mechanisms are elusive, and its etiology is poorly understood, even if environmental exposures, including toxic metals, are thought to play a key role. Progresses in both therapy and prevention for ALS have been held back by the lack of clear biomarkers, indicative of patients’ disease progression and central nervous system (CNS) exposure to environmental toxicants. Here, we propose to test whether the cargoes of blood extracellular vesicles (EVs), i.e., tiny membrane-bound capsules that shuttle biomolecules out of the CNS, can serve as novel biomarkers of CNS metal exposure and disease progression in ALS. EVs carry nucleic acids (including microRNAs [miRNAs]), proteins, and other elements, while circulating throughout the body for interorgan communication. EVs also operate as ‘trash bags’ allowing cells to eliminate excesses of unwanted cellular materials, including toxic metals and proteins. CNS-EVs can be isolated from blood because they express on their surface the neuron-specific protein ATP1A3 or the astrocyte-specific protein GLAST. Blood CNS-EVs could open a direct window of observation into the ALS brain from the periphery and provide different types of biomarkers. First, CNS-EVs may reflect disease progression by carrying pathogenic proteins progressively accumulating in neurons and astrocytes in ALS, such as the TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), or by showing progressive changes in miRNA profiles. Second, CNS-EV metal levels could be a direct surrogate of CNS metal load, and as suggested by metals’ effects on miRNA profiles, they could provide a molecular fingerprint of patient metal exposure, when direct measurement is not possible. To test these hypotheses, we are currently leveraging unique biospecimen collections from well-phenotyped cohorts of ALS patients and a set of age- and sex-matched control samples. This work is a large interdisciplinary collaboration with epidemiologists, Drs. Marianthi-Anna Kioumourtzoglou, Pam Factor-Litvak and Ana Navas-Acien, analytical chemists, Drs, Beizhan Yan, Kathrin Schilling, Ronald Glabonjat, and Brian Jackson, and with clinicians Drs. Ikjae Lee, Elijah Stommel, Neil Shneider and Hiroshi Mitsumoto.

Novel Exposomics and EV Biomarkers to Unravel Gene-Environment Interactions and Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration in Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive loss of neurons that produce a chemical messenger called “dopamine”, which is critical in the control of movement. Over the last decades, scientists have identified many genetic mutations in families affected by PD. But they represent only a small subset of patients, leaving 90% of the cases due to unknown causes; called “sporadic” or “idiopathic” PD. We do not know why these persons become sick; but because some occupations, such as working in the military, lead to a higher risk of developing PD, we believe they may have been exposed to substances or chemicals toxic for their brain. Metals, such as lead and manganese that are found in ammunitions, for instance, are among the prime candidates suspected to cause PD. Other toxic chemicals presumed to have a causal role in PD were found to contaminate military base drinking water systems. These toxic metals and chemicals are well known to accumulate in the brain over time. However, because PD does not develop in every person who is exposed to these toxic metals and chemicals, it is thought that the combination of individual vulnerability (e.g. a genetic pre-disposition) and toxic exposure can cause the disease. This is through a phenomenon called “gene-environment interaction.” Exposure to toxic metals and chemicals may not only have a role in “sporadic/idiopathic” PD but also in familial PD, as many people who carry a mutation causing PD in their family never develop the disease, known as incomplete penetrance. This is often the case for the mutations that we are currently studying in the gene LRRK2. Our central hypothesis is that exposure to, and brain accumulation of metals/organic toxicants, interacts with genetic mutations in LRRK2 to modulate the risk of developing PD. To test this hypothesis, we are currently combining investigations of environmental exposure in brain-derived EV biomarkers isolated from patient blood samples, on human dopamine neurons produced from patient skin cells by novel cell reprogramming technologies, and in “humanized” genetic mouse models of PD. In collaboration with the laboratory of Dr. Gary Miller at Columbia, our study is the first to evaluate exposomics in EVs.    Taken together, we anticipate that our studies will help elucidate the link(s) between exposure to metals/toxicants, the dysfunction of a key protein involved in PD, and the modulation of PD risk itself. We will validate novel EV biomarkers, which could become critical tools for PD diagnosis, but also in clinical trials to determine the benefit of new drugs. Ultimately, confirming the importance of toxicant-gene interactions in PD could promote the need for both environmental exposure and genetic counseling in PD prevention.

Electronic Cigarette Aerosol Neurotoxicity

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs), battery-operated devices that heat liquids to generate an inhaled aerosol vapor, are increasingly popular, especially among younger users.  E-cigs are seen as an increasingly attractive alternative to tobacco cigarettes; however, little is known about the human health effects arising from chronic exposure to these aerosols. A growing number of studies have examined potential e-cig risks for cancer, respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases. New data from our laboratory and others, however, raise additional human health concerns about exposure to potentially neurotoxic metals released from the heated coil wire and other e-cig components. Our collaborators at Columbia, Drs. Hilpert, Kleiman and Navas-Acien, found that in a large fraction e-cig aerosol samples we collected, nickel, chromium, and lead levels exceeded EPA national ambient air quality standards or ATSDR minimum risk levels (MRL). Notably, this was true for manganese (Mn), a prime suspect in sporadic Parkinson’s disease (PD) etiology. Others have found that vanadium, copper and selenium (all suspected of a potential role in PD were higher in blood of e-cig users as compared to tobacco smokers. We hypothesize that hazardous metals released by e-cigs may accumulate in the brain and pose significant neurotoxic risk(s) for neurodegenerative diseases upon chronic exposure. Recently, we reported that mice exposed to e-cig aerosols for 60 days at relatively high environmental concentrations but low inhalation doses (2 hrs/day, 5 days/wk @ 800 mg/m3) showed significant increases of many metals, including Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Sr in their striatum (a brain area key to both cognition and motricity, and affected early in PD), when compared to unexposed mice (Re et al., 2021). Other brain areas also showed metal accumulation and/or depletion of some essential metals such as Zn and Se. Thanks to a R01 from NIEHS, we are currently testing the reminder of our hypothesis in three ways. First, we are determining the levels of potentially neurotoxic metals in the aerosol produced by several popular e-cigs operated under different conditions and with e-liquids differing in flavor and nicotine content.  Second, we are examining the neurotoxic effect of chronic e-cig aerosol exposure in neuronal cell cultures derived from human subjects carrying incompletely penetrant mutations linked to PD or from healthy controls, and identify metal mixtures of particular neurotoxic concern. Third, we are measuring metal concentrations in brain tissue of chronically e-cig exposed mice, which are wildtype controls or knock-in for a mutation that increases the risk for PD; we are also determining the metals’ potential adverse effects on motor function and cognition in the mouse models. Findings from this study are likely to provide crucial and heretofore unavailable information to policy makers and will enable them to evaluate potential neurotoxic health risks arising from second-hand exposure to e-cig aerosol. We hypothesize that health risks are significantly influenced by genetic susceptibility to neurodegenerative disease, as well as by e-cig device construction, operating conditions, e-liquid flavoring, and nicotine content.  

Current Funding

R01 ES029971, NIH/NIEHS 01.02.20 – 01.31.25          
Re, Diane (PI)                                                                        
Brain-Derived Extracellular Vesicles as a Novel Source of Biomarkers for Disease Progression and Environmental Exposure in ALS

E01 W81XWH2210626, DOD Neurotoxin Exposure Treatment Parkinson 09.01.2022 – 08.31.2025                    
Re, Diane (PI)        
Novel exposomics and extracellular vesicle biomarkers to unravel gene-environment interactions and
mechanisms of neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease.

R01 ES032954, NIH/NIEHS 09.06.2021 – 09.05.2026                              
Re, Diane; Hilpert, Markus (MPI)                 
Neurotoxic and neurodegenerative risks from chronic exposure to metal mixtures in e-cigarette aerosol.

5P30ES009089-24, NIH/NIEHS 04.01.2023-05-31-2027
Re, Diane/Factor-Litvak, Pam (MPI)
Pilot Project Program
The goal of the Pilot Project Program (PPP) of the Center for Environmental Health and Justice in Northern Manhattan is to attract and retain junior and senior faculty in environmental health sciences, particularly those from backgrounds historically excluded from science and academia.

About Dr. Diane B. Ré

Dr. Diane Re in her office

Diane B. Ré is an Associate Professor in the Department of Environmental Health Sciences at Columbia University. She is also the Co-Director of the Pilot Project Program at the NIEHS Center for Environmental Health and Justice of Northern Manhattan and a member of the Columbia Motor Neuron Center. Diane Ré received her Ph.D. in Neuroscience from the University of Aix-Marseille in the south of France. She completed her post-doctoral training in the Departments of Neurology and Pathology and Cell Biology at Columbia University, focusing on the adult-onset paralytic disorder Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Notably, her post-doctoral work pioneered the notion that in ALS neurons controlling voluntary movement are degenerating due to the transformation of supportive glial cells into hostile toxic neighbors. Now, Dr. Ré’s research effort is focusing on unraveling the contribution of environmental neurotoxic exposures and gene-environment interactions to the development of ALS and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Her current NIH and DOD funded research work concentrates on three aspects: 1) developing new in vitro and animal models of gene-metal/chemical interaction in ALS and PD; 2) isolating, characterizing, and validating novel neuronal and astroglial extracellular vesicle biomarkers of environmental exposure and disease progression in ALS and PD; 3) unraveling the neurotoxicity of electronic cigarette aerosol which represents a huge threat to youth brain health in our modern societies.

Diane Ré is a passionate teacher and mentor. She is the Director of the PI Crash Course: Skills for Future or New Lab Leaders.  This two-day intensive professional development training has already provided exposure to fundamental leadership, negotiation, staffing and management skills to several hundreds of junior Faculty and senior post-docs. She is also the Director of the "Fundamentals of Toxicology for Health-Related Disciplines" course that aims at introducing the basic concepts of toxicology to students from multiple health-related fields (epidemiologists, policy makers, etc.) who are interested in public health and the environmental basis of human disease. Diane Ré’s highest reward in her job is seeing her students and mentees growing as creative and rigorous scientists, well-rounded human beings, and future leaders in the fields of research or medicine. In her spare time, Diane loves hiking and skiing in the Poconos with her family and friends. She is the proud mom of two teenagers. She is also a food and wine enthusiast and a soccer fan.

You can find a list of select lab publications below, or view a complete list of Diane Ré's published work in her bibliography.

Lab Members

Lab Members

  • Maame Ama B. Arthur

    • Technician B

    Maame's journey with the lab began as a research assistant during her first year as a graduate student at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health, where she immersed herself in the complex realms of neurotoxicity and infectious disease epidemiology. Drawing upon her expertise in Environmental Health Sciences and Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Maame was offered a position as a technician in the lab focusing her efforts on the DOD funded project on Parkinson’s Disease (PD) that aims at explore the combined impact of the genetic factor LRRK2 and exposure to environmental toxins on Parkinson's disease (PD) development by blood-borne extracellular vesicles (biomarkers) from PD patients to understand their brain's exposure to toxins, investigating gene-environment interactions relevant to PD-linked neurodegeneration, and assessing the effects of chronic exposure to neurotoxicants on PD pathology in mice. She also helps on the E-cigarette project where she studies the neurotoxic effects of e-cigarette aerosol exposure and the implications of neurotoxic metal accumulation in the brain using mouse models. Beyond her lab duties, Maame enjoys exploring local restaurants, loves her relaxation time, and cherishes moments spent with loved ones.

    Maame Arthur sitting in front of a green wall
  • Tanya Butt

    • PhD Student

    Tanya is a 4th year PhD student in the Department of Environmental Health Sciences working under the mentorship of Drs. Diane Re and Marianthi-Anna Kioumourtzoglou. She entered the program in 2020 with a Bachelor’s degree in Neuroscience from NYU and a Master’s degree in Public Health from Dartmouth. Her coursework has focused on molecular epidemiology and study design, advanced biostatistics, spatial analysis, and toxicology. Tanya’s research interests include how molecular mechanisms related to neurotoxic exposures contribute to adverse neurological and psychiatric health outcomes, with an emphasis on vulnerable and high-risk populations. Currently, her thesis research is titled, “Neural Extracellular Vesicle (EV) based Biomarkers of Disease and Exposure in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)”.

    Tanya Butt
  • Vesna Ilievski

    • Staff Associate
  • Cherine Jaafar

    • Staff Associate

    Cherine has been a Staff Associate in the Re lab since October 2022. She completed her studies in France starting with a bachelor's in biomedical sciences at Paris Descartes University and continued with a master's in nutrition and food sciences with a concentration in Toxicology and Environmental health at the Paris Saclay University. Her research interests focus on understanding the neurotoxic contribution of our environment. In the lab, she leads a DOD funded project on Parkinson’s Disease (PD) that aims at characterizing environmental factors implicated in the etiology of PD, using novel in vitro (hiPSCs) and in vivo (mouse) models as well as biomarkers of exposure (Extracellular vesicles, Evs). She particularly enjoys working on EVs and is hoping to better understand their biology and kinetic formation in the nervous system in order to use them in a disease context. Outside of the lab, Cherine loves going for long walks and bike rides.

    Cherine Jaafar standing in front of flowers
  • Grace Katz

    • Technician B

    Grace Katz is a Technician in the Re Lab. She joined the lab in October 2023 after completing her undergraduate degree in Biology of Global Health at Georgetown University, where she studied HIV-infected T cells. She is currently focused on investigating the environmental drivers and biomarkers of ALS mainly through work on extracellular vesicles (EVs). Her previous research interests include a study of disease-host interactions with ticks and mosquitoes at The Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies.

    Grace Katz formal headshot
  • Lilian Petropoulou-Vathi

    • Post-doctoral Research Scientist

    Lilian is a post-doc in Re lab since July 2024. She is a Biochemist, holding a master’s degree in Molecular Neuroscience from UK universities and completed her PhD in Greece in BRFAA Institute. Her thesis was on interrogating biomarkers based on LRRK2 protein in Parkinson’s disease (PD) in multiple human biofluids. Current research focus in on examining how the e-cigarette aerosol exposure may induce neurotoxic accumulation of metals in mouse brain areas involved in PD and how chronic exposure may affect their cognition and motor abilities. Additionally, she examines the in vitro neurotoxicity of the aerosol in dopaminergic neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells of PD patients. Outside the lab, Lilian enjoys going to music concerts, watching films and travelling.

    Lilian Petropoulou Vathi headshot against white wall
  • Ana Sanchez

    • Technician B

    Ana joined the Re’s lab as a Technician B in December 2022. She completed her bachelor’s in veterinary medicine at the University of Applied and Environmental Sciences (UDCA) of Colombia followed by a Master in Biological Sciences at the University of Oeste Paulista in Brazil. Her work in the lab focuses on the e-cigarette aerosol exposure project. She uses her veterinarian expertise to ensure that the animals’ experiments are performed smoothly and in accordance with bioethics policies. She often performs behavior tests (motor and cognitive) as well as blood collection, IP injections, animals’ dissection, organs collections and uses the cryostat to generate organ slices for pathology assessment.
    She has been working with animals for more than 20 years, in different areas of research and have always had a special devotion to animals. She finds it crucial that we work with them with respect because they make a huge contribution to science. Ana is also a loving mother and enjoys spending quality time with her 2 daughters outside of the lab.

    Ana Sanchez stands in front of a window overlooking New York City
  • Sarah A. Aloe

    • Master's Student

    Sarah recently joined the Re lab in May 2024. She received her bachelor’s degree in biological sciences at CUNY Hunter College. She has been working on her master’s degree in toxicology at Columbia Mailman School of Public Health and anticipates graduating in Spring 2025. Her main area of interest is the effect of environmental exposures on disease development, specifically through neurotoxic mechanisms. In the lab, she is working on her master’s thesis with in vitro models to study the effects of heavy metals and e-cigarette aerosols on astrocyte and dopaminergic neuron function and viability. Outside of the lab, Sarah enjoys reading, knitting, and trying new restaurants.

    Sarah Aloe headshot
  • Andres Silva

    • Master's Student

    Andres graduated from Fordham University with a BS in Biological Sciences and Psychology. He is a former PrIMER trainee, where he worked under Dr. Norman Kleiman, investigating the mechanisms by which Far-UVC light damages DNA. Currently, Andres is part of the Ré lab to study how environmental exposure contribute to Parkinson's disease (PD). This fall, he will join Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health to pursue an MS in Toxicology. Outside of the lab, Andres enjoys reading and drawing.

  • Léa Jean-Francois

    • Research Assistant
    • Just graduated! Congrats!

    Léa is a research assistant who has just completed her MS in Toxicology at Columbia Mailman School of Public Health. Léa entered the MS in 2022 with a BA in Environmental Science and Biology from Barnard College. Currently, in the lab she is researching the potential neurotoxicity of e-cigarette aerosol exposure and the role of neurotoxic metal accumulation in the brain using mouse models. Lea's research interests lie in understanding the intricate relationship between environmental factors and human health. She is enthusiastic about toxicology and will be commencing her PhD in Biological and Biomedical Sciences at UNC Chapel Hill this fall.  Beyond academia, Léa enjoys spending quality time with her dog, Camilla, and doing puzzles.

    Lea Jean Francois on Columbia University campus
  • Isaac Mullings

    • PrIMER Trainee/BS in Psychology

    Isaac Mullings has been a Trainee within the Program to Inspire and Mentor Undergraduates in Environmental Health Science Research (PrIMER) in the Ré lab since June 2022. He completed his studies at Fordham University on the Rose-Hill campus, majoring in psychology on the pre-medical track. In the lab, Isaac was given formal training in analytic methods such as using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and immunoprecipitation (IP). His research interest pertains to understanding gene and environmental interactions and their implications on the etiology of neurological disorders. During his first year as a trainee in the PrIMER program, Isaac investigated biomarkers of disease progression for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). During his second year as a trainee, Isaac assisted in the lab to investigate E-cigarette neurotoxicity in mice.  Outside of the lab, Isaac was the president of the Minority Association for Pre-Medical Students (MAPs) and a member of Fordham University's Committee on Health Professions, which serves as a bridge between faculty and undergraduate students. Isaac will continue researching the environmental contribution to peripheral neuropathy incidence in Ghana as a recipient of the Fulbright Research study grant. Isaac loves track and field and is a member of his local church choir, Upperroom Assemblies of God, as a Tenor singer.

    Smiling man wearing a dark blue suit.
  • Bianca Notarainni

    • Research Assistant/MS in Toxicology

    Bianca has been a Research Assistant in the Re lab since October 2022. She completed her undergraduate degree at NYU and has recently graduate from Columbia’s Mailman School of Public Health with a Masters of Public Health in Environmental Health Sciences with a Certificate in Toxicology. In the lab, she is particularly focused on the effects of E-cigarettes on the brain which includes using in vivo (mouse) models. She presented preliminary results from this research at the Society of Toxicology in March 2024 which discussed the Neurotoxicity Due to Chronic E-cigarette Aerosol Exposure in Control and Parkinson's Disease Susceptible Mice. Outside of the lab, Bianca enjoys working out, watching new shows, and reading.

    Bianca Notarainni
  • Roheeni Saxena

    • Adjunct Associate Research Scientist
    • Just obtained a faculty position! Congrats!

    Dr. Roheeni Saxena will start a new position in September 2024 as a Faculty at University of New Haven. Congrats, Roheeni!

    Dr. Roheeni Saxena is a child and adolescent environmental cognitive neurotoxicologist serving as an Adjunct Associate Research Scientist in Dr. Diane Re’s lab and a full-time faculty member in the Department of Population Health and Leadership at the University of New Haven. She is excited to contribute to UNH's expanding public health graduate programs through her teaching and research training.

    Dr. Saxena completed her postdoctoral training under Dr. Re through the Columbia University Irving Institute for Clinical and Translational Research, specializing in novel biomarkers for CNS metals exposure and neurodegenerative outcomes. She earned her PhD from the Department of Environmental Health Sciences at Columbia's Mailman School of Public Health, focusing on heavy metals exposure from contaminated water and cognitive outcomes in adolescents. She also holds an MPH from the Mailman School’s Department of Sociomedical Sciences, where she studied the socio-environmental exposome, including social stressors, cultural stressors, and differential health literacy among marginalized populations.

    Outside academia, Dr. Saxena runs a private practice in applied cognitive neuroscience, working with learners of all ages facing cognitive challenges. In her free time, she enjoys teaching her dog, Cooper, to communicate using AAC buttons.

    Roheeni Saxena

Select Publications

  • Butt TH, Tobiume M, Re DB, Kariya S. Physical Exercise Counteracts Aging-Associated White Matter Demyelination Causing Cognitive Decline. Aging Dis. 2024 Feb 17;. doi: 10.14336/AD.2024.0216. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PubMed PMID: 38377028.

  • Comfort N., Gade M., Strait M.D., Merwin S.J., Antoniou D., Parodi C., Marcinczyk L., Jean-Francois L., Bloomquist T.R., Memou A., Rideout H.J., Corti S., Kariya S., Re D.B. Longitudinal transcriptomic analysis of mouse sciatic nerve reveals pathways associated with age-related muscle pathology. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle.2023. Mar 10. doi: 10.1002/jcsm.13204. Online ahead of print. PMID: 36905126.

  • Re DB, Rideout HJ. Why the Gut Microbiome Must Be Considered When Evaluating the Impact of       Pesticides on Parkinson's Disease Risk. J Parkinsons Dis. 2023;13(7):1077-1078. doi: 10.3233/JPD-239004. PubMed PMID: 37927278; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC10657661.

  • Nguyen K.N., Saxena R., Re D.B., Yan B.. Rapid LC-MS/MS Quantification of Organophosphate Non-specific Metabolites in Hair Using Alkaline Extraction Approach. Journal of Chromatography B.. 2023 Feb 15;1217:123619. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2023.123619. Epub 2023 Feb 2. PMID: 36774786.

  • Re DB, Yan B, Calderón-Garcidueñas L, Andrew AS, Tischbein M, Elijah W. Stommel. A Perspective on Persistent Toxicants in Veterans and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Identifying Exposures Determining Higher ALS Risk. J Neurol. 2022 May;269(5):2359-2377. doi: 10.1007/s00415-021-10928-5. Epub 2022 Jan 1. PMID: 34973105

  • Re DB, Hilpert, M, Saglimbeni B, Strait M, Ilievski, V, Coady, M, Talayero M, Wilmsen K, Chesnais H, Balac O, Glabonjat R.A, Slavkovich, V, Yan B, Graziano J, Navas-Acien, A, Kleiman, N.J. Exposure to e-cigarette aerosol over two months induces accumulation of neurotoxic metals and alteration of essential metals in mouse brain. Environ Res. 2021. Jul 8; 202:111557. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.111557. PMID: 34245728.

  • Gade M, Comfort N, Re DB. Sex-Specific Neurotoxic Effects of Heavy Metal Pollutants: Epidemiological, Experimental Evidence and Candidate Mechanisms. Environ Res. 2021 Jul 2; 201:111558. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.111558. PMID: 34224706.

  • Comfort N and Re DB. Sex-specific Neurotoxic Effects of Organophosphate Pesticides Across the Life Course. Curr Environ Health Rep. (2017) Dec;4(4):392-404. doi: 10.1007/s40572-017-0171-y. PMID: 29063415; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5677564.

  • Rideout HJ, Re DB. LRRK2 and the "LRRKtosome" at the Crossroads of Programmed Cell Death: Clues from RIP Kinase Relatives. Adv Neurobiol. (2017);14:193-208. doi: 10.1007/978- 3-319-49969-7_10. PubMed PMID: 28353285.

  • Merwin SJ, Obis T, Nunez Y, Re DB. Organophosphate neurotoxicity to the voluntary motor system on the trail of environment-caused amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: the known, the misknown, and the unknown. Arch Toxicol. (2017) Jan 9. doi: 10.1007/s00204-016-1926-1. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 28070599.