INDIA | Health Topics

There are multiple views on the strengths, weaknesses, and efficacy of India's health care system. Below is a curated list of perspectives and insights on various topics that best illustrate the scope of debate. This information has been collected from academic, media, and industry sources from both within and outside of the country. It is not comprehensive. The views and opinions expressed are those of the authors and are not a reflection of the position of the Mailman School of Public Health or its faculty.
The articles are provided with the source first followed by the link to the article. All sources used for the policy library can be found under the Additional Resources tab.
Health Topics Included


Asian Journal of Psychiatry | Is India Missing COVID-19 Deaths?1

Disease & Illness

Environmental HEalth

FinancING & Payment Systems


Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Challenges to Healthcare in India - The Five A's​14
Journal of the American Medical Assocation | Health Care Reforms in India15

World Economic Forum | What India's Route to Universal Health Coverage Can Teach the World16

Health Disparities & Minority Health


MATERNAL & child Health



Journal of Perinatology | Health Systems in India21

The Knowledge Review | India's Mega Health Reforms: Treatment For Half A Billion22
University of Pennsylvania Scholarly Commons | India's Healthcare Industry: A System Perspective25


  1.  Choudhari, R. (2020). COVID 19 pandemic: Mental health challenges of internal migrant workers of India. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 54, 102254. 
  2. Chatterjee, P. (2020). Is India missing COVID-19 deaths? The Lancet, 396(10252), 657. 
  3. Ministry of Health & Family Welfare. (2005). Burden of Disease in India. National Commission on Macroeconomics and Health. 
  4. Lakshminarayanan, S., & Jayalakshmy, R. (2015). Diarrheal Diseases Among Children In India: Current Scenario And Future Perspectives. Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine, 6(1), 24–28. 
  5. The World Bank. (2010). (publication). The Economic Implications of Non-Communicable Disease for India. Retrieved from 
  6. Yadav, J., Menon, G. R., Mitra, M., Allarakha, S., & John, D. (2020). Burden and cost of communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutrition deficiency diseases in India. Journal of Public Health. 
  7. Air Pollution Is Now The Fifth Largest Killer In India, Says Newly Released Findings Of Global Burden Of Disease Report. (2013, February 13). Centre for Science and Environment . 
  8. Kumar, S., Jain, A., & Kar, S. (2011). Health and environmental sanitation in India: Issues for prioritizing control strategies. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 15(3), 93–96. 
  9. National Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Govt. of India. (2005). Financing and Delivery of Health Care Services in India. World Health Organization. 
  10. Kumar, D., & Sohal, S. Overview of Health Care Expenditure & Healthcare Payment Methods in India. Health Economics & Outcome Research, 4(2). 
  11. Sharma, S. D. (2018). Health Care for India’s 500 Million: The Promise of the National Health Protection Scheme. Harvard Public Health Review. 
  12. Mohanan, M., Hay, K., & Mor, N. (2016). Quality Of Health Care In India: Challenges, Priorities, And The Road Ahead. Health Affairs, 35(10), 1753–1758. 
  13. Witter, S., Govender, V., Ravindran, T. S., & Yates, R. (2017). Minding the gaps: health financing, universal health coverage and gender. Health Policy and Planning, 32(suppl_5), v4–v12. 
  14. Kasthuri, A. (2018). Challenges to Healthcare in India - The Five A's. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 43(3), 141–143. 
  15. Reddy, K. S. (2018). Health Care Reforms in India. JAMA, 319(24), 2477. 
  16. Kamineni, S. (2019, October 3). What India's Route To Universal Health Coverage Can Teach The World. World Economic Forum. 
  17. Nigar, S. (2018, June 15). India’s Dalit Women Lack Access To Healthcare And Die Young. Asia Times. 
  18. Pathak, S., & Latif Khan, F. (2018, September 17). India's Anti-Gay Law Is History. Next Challenge: Treat Lgbtq Patients With Respect. NPR. 
  19. Kumar, N., Anderson, R. J. (2015). Mobile Phones for Maternal Health in Rural India. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI '15. 
  20. Bishai, D. (2018). Disparities in Child Mortality among Religious Minorities in the Districts of India. 
  21. Chokshi, M., Patil, B., Khanna, R., Neogi, S. B., Sharma, J., Paul, V. K., & Zodpey, S. (2016). Health Systems in India. Journal of Perinatology, 36(S3). 
    19. Burns, L. R. (2014). India 's Healthcare Industry: A System Perspective. In India's Healthcare Industry: Innovation in Delivery, Financing, and Manufacturing (pp. 3–37). essay, Cambridge University Press. 
  22. Gandhi, P.; Medhekar, S. V. (2019, March 26). Healthcare reforms in India. The Knowledge Review. 
  23. The Lancet. (2018). India's mega health reforms: treatment for half a billion. The Lancet, 392(10148), 614. 
  24. Nature Portfolio. (2019, August 20). Don't rush India's health-care reforms. Nature News.  
  25. Burns, L. R. (2014). India 's Healthcare Industry: A System Perspective. Wharton Faculty Research Health Care Management Papers.